New insights into the proton structure
The electron and proton are the only two particles, which are stable in the isolated state. The main goal of particle physics is to understand what these particles are made of, what their internal structure is, and what makes them stable.
Building onto the same principles that successfully describe the electron structure, the authors of a new scientific publication introduce an experimentally matching proton model:
Briefly, the authors re-establish the proton’s elementary particle status, and discover that the proton has a toroidal internal structure.
Why is it time to re-open a discussion of the proton’s structure? The currently popular quark model claims that the proton comprises charged point-particles (quarks) that are enclosed within the 0.84 fm proton radius. The quark model suffers from a number of drawbacks:
- As explained in 10 minutes here, the quark model contradicts experimental data and necessitates stacking assumptions-upon-assumptions-upon-assumptions
- The concept of a charged point-particle contradicts Maxwell’s equation (its energy would be infinite), the concept of quarks’ enclosure within 0.84 fm violates Heisenberg uncertainty, and the presence of massive virtual particles violates Noether’s theorem. It is preferable to find a proton model which does not contradict all the foundational laws of physics.
- The quark model proposes that the bulk of the proton mass comprises force-carrying virtual particles, which is by definition a meta-stable state; and such model is contradiction with the claimed inseparability of quarks and also in contradiction with the proton’s stability.
We emphasize that we are at the “opening of dialogue” stage, and it requires further investigations to make definite conclusions. Currently, the CleanHME community is split between scientists endorsing the above-mentioned contradictions of the quark model, and scientists endorsing the novel single-particle toroidal proton model.
This dialogue marks the start of a new road, which eventually leads to a deeper understanding of elementary particles and nuclear structures. There are still many questions to investigate further. For example, the article points out that it is yet to be clarified whether the proton has a single magnetic flux quantum, or two magnetic flux quanta along the poloidal and toroidal directions.